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A brief history about Iceland
Iceland is a Nordic country/island located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of around 390,000 people (2023). The country has a rich history and a unique geology that makes it one of the most fascinating places to visit in the world. The history of Iceland dates back to the 9th century when the first Viking settlers arrived on the island.
The country was founded in 930 AD when the settlers formed the Althing, the world's oldest surviving parliament. Over the centuries, Iceland was ruled by various foreign powers, including Norway and Denmark. However, the country gained independence from the latter back in 1944 and has since become a prosperous and modern democracy.
Geologically, Iceland is one of the youngest landmasses on Earth, formed about 20 million years ago through volcanic eruptions. The country is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary that separates the North American and Eurasian plates. This unique location makes Iceland a hot spot for volcanic activity, geysers, and other geological wonders.
Furthermore, Iceland is a land of extremes, with rugged terrain and vast expanses of wilderness. The country has a total area of 103,000 square kilometers (40,000 square miles), making it the world's 108th largest country.
The landscape is dominated by glaciers, mountains, and volcanoes, with the country's highest peak, Hvannadalshnúkur, reaching 2,110 meters (6,920 feet) above sea level. Despite its harsh climate and challenging terrain, Iceland is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna. The country has over 1,300 species of plants and more than 300 species of birds, including puffins, which are a popular attraction for tourists.